Showing posts with label Heian. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Heian. Show all posts

31 Dec 2018

DARUMA - Darumapedia on Facebook


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Darumapedia on Facebook

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The Darumapedia has expanded over the years.
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. Joys of Japan - Main Gallery .   




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. Fudo Myo-O 不動明王 .   



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. Ta no Kami Yama no Kami 田の神 山の神  .

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Posted By Gabi Greve to Daruma San in Japan, Japanese Art and Culture (01)

3 Aug 2018

GOKURAKU - Raigo the soul goes to heaven

https://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.com/2018/08/raigozu-amida-coming-at-death.html

raigozu Amida coming at death

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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raigoo, raigō 来迎 Raigo, the soul on the way to paradise
"Decent of Amida Buddha", "Amida Coming over the Mountain"


- quote
Buddhist Art and Amida Raigo Triads
This topic may seem a bit difficult, but try to follow as best you can. It's about a certain type of Buddhist statue. Actually this type of statue does not appear alone, but as a set of three: in the center is a Buddha called Amida, and on either side sits an Bodhisattva-attendant, one named Seishi and one named Kannon.
This set is called an Amida Raigo Triad.

We will talk about what raigo means later, but before we begin, take a look at this Amida Raigo Triad from a temple called Joshoko-ji, in the mountains north of Kyoto.



- - - - - Paintings and Sculpture
- snip -

- - - - - Raigo and Sculpture
Buddhas are considered, like God, to be an Absolute existence and thus require no surrounding environment. Though Buddhas themselves need no enhancement, however, their followers, such as Buddhist angels or Bodhisattvas, sometimes are enriched with depictions of movement or surrounding atmosphere. Here too, however, we see the limitations of sculpture in depicting movement. On ancient Buddhist wall paintings, angels appear to be floating lightly through the heavens around the Buddha. But when these same kinds of angels were incorporated in sculpture and attached to the Buddha's halo, however, they lost their lightness and seemed to become more rigid. This is probably because of the innate differences between painting and sculpture.

The above may be one of the reasons that Japanese sculptors did not often try to incorporate surrounding environment into their sculptures. In the Heian Period, however, belief in the Pure Land spread, and people began to believe that after death they would be reborn in the Pure Land Paradise of Amida Buddha. As this belief spread, so too grew the desire to see expressions of the Pure Land in Buddhist sculpture. The result were images depicting Amida Buddha coming down from the far-off Pure Land Paradise to meet the souls of the dead and take them back with him to heaven. These images are called raigo, and usually had Amida in the center with an attendant on either side. This is the Amida Raigo Triad!

Scenes of this Amida Raigo Triad riding clouds, crossing mountains, and flying through the wind were easy to express through the medium of painting, but many difficulties arose when trying to express such scenes through sculpture, such as in the triad above. Why? Well, think about the nature of sculpture: it is impossible (or it was in those days) to create a sculpture that floats in mid-air. It is also difficult to express speed. To compensate, the sculptors of the Joshoko-ji triad tried to give the attendants a sense of tension and presence by depicting them leaning forward.

Towards the end of the Heian Period, perhaps reflecting changes in the society as a whole, artistic expression became more realistic, both in painting and sculpture. One area in which this can be seen is in the Raigo sculptures. The triad above from Joshoko-ji Temple is one of the earliest experiments in realism in a Raigo triad. Let's compare it with a painting of the same period.

- photo of Yushihachimanko Juhachika-in Temple
What are the differences in the way this Bodhisattva-attendant is portrayed in painting and in sculpture? In the painting, the central triad and their surrounding Bodhisattva ride upon clouds, and cross mountains rich with autumn color as they gradually make their descent. On the other hand, though the sculpture does not show the autumn mountains over which the triad is crossing, it does show all three figures on clouds, and the two attendants crouched on their knees are leaning forward, giving them the same sense of speed and presence within an environment that we see in the painting.
- source : Kyoto National Museum - Shiro Ito



. . . CLICK here for more Photos  !

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source : sendai-c.ed.jp...

木造阿弥陀如来・二十五菩薩像及び地蔵菩薩立像 - Sendai
Amida, 25 Bosatsu and Jizo statue

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source : enpukuji.co/homotsu...
Temple 円福寺 Enpuku-Ji-Tokyo

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Temple 即成院 Sokujo-In - Kyoto

. . . CLICK here for more Photos of statues !


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raigoozuu 来迎図 Raigozu, illustrations of the way to paradise



- quote -
Amida (Amitabha) Coming over the Mountain
The popular, Kamakura Period painting theme of "Amida Coming over the Mountain," usually shows the central image of Amida facing forward with both hands held over his breast. This pattern can be seen in the Zenrinji and Konkaikomyoji "Amida Coming over the Mountain" scrolls. In this scroll, however, Amida comes not over a mountain but across a valley, accompanied by six Bodhisattva attendants. He faces not forwards but to the left, with his right hand raised and his left hand down. Though this posture is atypical of "Amida Coming over the Mountain" paintings, it is common in other raigozu ("Decent of Amida Buddha" paintings). Since it contains no other narrative elements, such as the pious Buddhist on his deathbed awaiting Amida's salvation in the Chionin raigozu scroll, it can be categorized as a variation on the "Amida Coming over the Mountain" theme.
The composition of this work is well-balanced and its portrayal of the figures is elaborate and reverential. It can be counted among the representative Buddhist paintings of the Kamakura Period.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -

- Seated Amida (Amitabha) with Raigo Mudra, hand position of welcoming spirits of the dead.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -

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阿弥陀二十五菩薩来迎図 Amida and 25 Bosatsu coming
Temple 知恩院 Chion-In


source : chion-in.or.jp...

- quote -
Raigo of Amida (Amitabha) and Twenty-five Attendants
This outstanding work depicts Amida (Amitabha) and twenty-five attendants as they descend on clouds over steep mountains down from Heaven. They are on their way to meet a dead person, depicted in the bottom-right, to accompany back to Heaven. This scene is known as "Rapid Descent," because of the especially swift appearance of the clouds. Flying clouds and the depiction of figures and garments in gold are characteristic of Buddhist paintings in the Late-Kamakura Period.
This scene depicts
jo-bon jo-sho (first class, upper birth), the highest state of death, evident from the dead person seated upright in front of a sutra scroll and the pagoda in the sky in the upper-right of the painting. The mountains in the background are high, but their smooth contour lines produce a gentle effect typical of the Yamato-e paintings. Though the scene depicted in this work is imaginary, its elements of landscape expression are impressive.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -


. Chion-In 知恩院 / 智恩院 .
Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto


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観経九品来迎と鳳凰堂来迎図 Byodo-In
平等院鳳凰堂



. 平等院 Byodo-In - The Phoenix Hall in Uji .


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. 高野山 Koyasan, Mount Koya, Wakayama .


高野山聖衆来迎図

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来迎図 by 濱田隆 Hamada Takashi
日本の美術 No273 - 1989年



. . . CLICK here for more Photos  !


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- Further reference by Mark Schumacher, Buddhist Statuary
- 25 Bodhisattva (Nijūgo Bosatsu, Nijugo Bosatsu, 二十五菩薩) -
- Amida Buddha 阿弥陀如来 -
- Apsaras - 雲中供養菩薩 - serving Amida Buddha -

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

. kiraigoo 鬼来迎 (きらいごう) "Welcoming the Demons" .
kigo for late summer
..... Oni Mai 鬼舞"Demon's Dance"
Bon-Kyogen dance performed on the 16th of July, at the temple 広済寺 Hozai-Ji in Chiba.


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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

................................................................................. Aomori 青森県 
梵珠山 Mound Bonjusan (486 m)

go raigoo sama 御来迎様 / go toomyoo 御灯明 heavenly light
On the 26th day of the seventh lunar month, the moon in its last quarter looks almost like a boat and the local people see it like the 阿弥陀三尊 Triad of Amida, Seishi and Kannon.
To pray to the three, villagers climb to the temple on Mount Bonjusan and pray the whole night.


- Kannon temple at Mount Bonjusan

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bakemono 化物 monster / raigoobashira 来迎柱
A young man once stayed over night at an old temple where monsters live. From below the Raigobashira pillar there came a monster, mumbling obosaru obosau オボサルオボサル, so he picked it up and carried it back home. Next morning he saw that it was a bag full of big and small gold coins.


- source : dannoh.or.jp/history... -
檀王法林寺 Dannō-hōrinji, Temple Danno-Horin-Ji, Kyoto 来迎柱

raigoubashira :
Two or four-circular pillars right and left at each corner of the Buddhist altar to define the most sacred place in a temple where Buddhist images are enshrined.
- JAANUS




................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県 
常総市 Joso city

. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends .
In the district of 飯沼郷 Iinuma at the temple 弘経寺 Gugyo-Ji there was a priest well versed in religious discussions, but in fact it was a fox. Another priest wanted to expose this and told the fox/priest he would give him anything he wanted.
The fox said he wanted to see Amida. The real priest told the fox that he could see Amida, but he should not pray to it, since he would then die.
But when the apparition of Amida Raigo came down from heaven, the fox was overwhelmed and begun to pray. And there - he fell down dead immediately.



................................................................................. Nagano 長野県 

Ajari-ike 阿闍梨池 pond of the Ajari
. Higo Ajari 肥後阿闍梨 / 備後阿闍 the Ajari of Higo, Acharya of Higo.
Kooen, Kōen 皇円 Saint Koen and his faith in 弥勒菩薩 Miroku Bosatsu.



................................................................................. Nara 奈良県 

. Temple Taimadera 当麻寺 / 當麻寺 and princess 中将姫 Chujo .
Princess Chujo was a nun at temple Taimadera. She prayed to Amida for her Raigo and six days later, she died and her Mandala was completed.



................................................................................. Tochigi 栃木県 

. tanuki 狸 - mujina 狢 - racoon dog, badger legends .
An old Tanuki had lived at the temple 茂林寺 Morin-Ji, taking care of the tea kettles. Once he fell asleep and his tail begun to show, so the priest now knew he was not a human and threw him out of the temple. To show his gratitude for the many years of his stay, the Tanuki showed the others an apparition of
釈迦来迎 Shaka Raigo, Shakyamuni coming down and died.
The priest then made a grave for the Tanuki and put the lid of the tea kettle on top of it.


source : matsui-ikuo.jp/blog...
- 茶席 釈迦来迎図 -


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. Oojoyooshuu, Ōjōyōshū 往生要集 Ojoyoshu, Ojo Yoshu .
by Genshin 源信  (942-1017), Eshin Soozu 恵心僧都 Eshin Sozu
dai oojoo 大往生 daiojo - sudden death
pokkuri  ぽっくり sudden death

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #raigozu #raigo #amidaraigo #amidatriad -
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